C/C++ Functions for Computer Vision and Image Processing
I intend to incrementally add source code here, time permitting...

Computer Vision and Image Processing Public Libraries
I have found the following libraries useful during my research:
OpenCV - a fast vision library in C, developed at Intel (optimized for Intel processors)
VXL - a large collection of computer vision related C++ code  with a very  useful numeric library, VNL
ITK  - a templated C++ library designed for medical image computing
Thanks a lot to all the developers!