The early diagnosis and subsequent treatment of cancer has been one of the great success stories of medicine, particularly over the past 30 years. However, our understanding of cancer biology, the opportunities for therapy, and measurements of the effects of therapy are still remarkably limited. We present some of our recent work in preclinical image analysis (optical, microPET, microMRI) and its translation to the clinic, particularly for breast, liver, and colorectal cancer. Preclinical image analysis is related closely to cellular pathway models of aspects of cancer: we illustrate this for tumour hypoxia and glycolysis. Finally, we outline the increasingly important role of image analysis in decision support for the multidisciplinary team (USA: tumor board) patient management, and the development of a biomathematical model to predict in vivo radioligand performance based on in silico/in vitro data.
Professor Sir Michael Brady FRS, FREng, FMedSci, FIET, FInstP, FBCS is BP Professor of Information Engineering at the University of Oxford, where he is a member of the Wolfson Medical Vision Laboratory and a Principal Investigator of the Oxford Cancer Imaging Centre (OCIC), a national facility funded by Cancer Research UK, the Medical Research Council, and the Engineering and Physical Research Council.
Professor Brady is the author of over 475 articles and 24 patents in computer vision, robotics, medical image analysis, and artificial intelligence, and the author or editor of ten books including: Robot Motion (MIT Press 1984), Robotics Science (MIT Press 1989), Robotics Research (MIT Press 1984), Mammographic Image Analysis (Kluwer, January 1999) and Images and Artefacts of the Ancient World (British Academy, 2005) and the International Workshop on Digital Mammography (Springer 2006)..
He is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, Fellow of the Royal Society, and a Fellow of the Academy of Medical Science. He has been awarded honorary doctorates by the universities of Essex, Manchester, Liverpool, Southampton, Oxford Brookes, and Paul Sabatier (Toulouse).
He was awarded the IEE Faraday Medal for 2000 and the IEEE Third Millennium Medal for the UK. He was awarded the Henry Dale Prize (for "outstanding work on a biological topic by means of an original multidisciplinary approach") by the Royal Institution in 2005.
He has a strong commitment to entrepreneurial activity, and serves as a non-executive director and Deputy Chairman of Oxford Instruments plc (http://www.oxinst.com/ ). Mike is a founding Director of the start-up companies Guidance (http://www.gcsltd.co.uk ), Mirada Solutions Limited (http://www.mirada-solutions.com ) which develops medical image analysis software, and, most recently, Ivivo Limited. Mike is also a non-executive director of the start-up companies http://www.ixico.net/ and of http://www.dexela.co.uk/.
This presentation describes unique robotic tools for both nano handling of a living cell and minimally invasive surgery of deep organs developed by the author's group. These robots are based on the new principles for actuation, fabrication and control with sensing. "Nano hand" is fabricated by nano stereolithography originally developed by the author's laboratory. The size of the nano hand is only 12 micron and driven under the optical micro scope by laser trapping technique. The operator can control nano hand with three degrees of freedom via remote controller. This nano robot can handle five micron living cell in the water and achieve real-time measurement of the reactive force from a cell. Mechanical property of single cell is obtained successfully. Another unique robot named "Microfinger" for minimally invasive remote surgery in deep site has a flexible and fine stem with tiny hand. This robot can enter the working channel of the endoscope to conduct micro surgery. The talk will also outline future research opportunities and research challenges, as well as the role of the MICCAI community, for establishing innovative nano/micro tools suitable for new demands in future medicine.
Professor Koji Ikuta received his first B.S. in Material Science and Engineering, and his second B.S. and M.S. in Biophysical Engineering in 1977, 1979 and 1981 respectively from Osaka University. He received a Ph.D in Control Engineering from Tokyo Institute of Technology in 1987. He joined the Center for Robotic Systems in Microelectronics (a NSF sponsored engineering center) at the University of California, Santa Barbara in 1987, where he was a project leader of the shape memory alloy actuator project for two years. After returning to Japan in 1989, he was an assistant professor at the University of Tokyo. In 1990, he became an associate professor at Kyusyu Institute of Technology and moved to Nagoya University in 1994, where he was made a full professor at the newly established department of micro system engineering.
He was awarded more than 30 academic prizes for his outstanding research results in biomedical micro machines (Bio-MEMS) and medical robotics from government and academic societies such as the Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME) and several foundations. (Outstanding Researcher Prize from Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan, The Achievement award from American Association on Laboratory Automation and Best paper award from Japan Society of Robots etc.)
He is renowned for his work on Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuator and it’s medical applications from the early 80's as the inventor of the world's first "Active Endoscope" and has performed extensive research on SMA micro actuators, including new control/sensing methods and micro fabrication of SMA thin film. He successfully developed the “Micro Stereo Lithography (IH process)” in 1992. This research is well recognized as a trigger work of three dimensional micro/nano fabrication. The resolution of micro/nano stereolithgraphy has already reached to 100 nm in 1999.
He has been proposing the concept and investigating "Biochemical IC chips" (or “Chemical IC chip” in short ) which is a micro chemical device including micro pump, reactor, detector and other micro components to construct overall micro chemical analysis and synthesis. This biochemical IC chips contribute the order-made medicine and wearable/ implantable device in near future. In the last few years, he has been establishing new robotics and mechatronics field so called “Optical-driven nano robotics and machatronics” which can work in liquid under microscope guidance to handle a cell and micro objects in micro biology.